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The remainder of the original complex originally hosted printed media as well as Eastern Air Lines. While Fifth Avenue is located at the southeast corner of the complex, it was built by private interests in the s and was only acquired by the center in It is noted for the large quantities of art present in almost all of its Art Deco buildings, its expansive underground concourse, and its ice-skating rink.
The complex is also famous for its annual lighting of the Rockefeller Center Christmas Tree. In , the Metropolitan Opera started looking for locations to build a new opera house to replace the existing building at 39th Street and Broadway.
Rockefeller Sr. Todd then put forth a plan for the Met. Rockefeller hosted a "symposium" of architectural firms to solicit plans for the complex,   but it did not yield any meaningful plans.
They worked under the umbrella of "Associated Architects" so none of the buildings could be attributed to any specific firm. Todd, one of the co-founders of Todd, Robertson and Todd.
Andrew Reinhard and Henry Hofmeister had been hired by John Todd as the "rental architects", who designed the floor plans for the complex.
Todd released a new plan "G-3" in January During early planning, the development was often referred to as "Radio City",  "Rockefeller City", or "Metropolitan Square" after the Metropolitan Square Corporation.
John Rockefeller Jr. For the project, buildings on the site were razed and some 4, tenants relocated. One of the two small buildings was already rented to Italian interests.
The underground pedestrian mall and ramp system between 48th and 51st streets was finished in early May.
A proposed story building in the center of the southernmost block was offered to the Dutch government in Rubber Company Building site commenced in May The construction of the project employed between 40, and 60, people.
That year, 1. Even before the U. Rockefeller Center only became profitable after the last building in the original complex was completed. Rockefeller Center was also popular among visitors: for instance, the lines to enter one of the Music Hall's five daily shows stretched from Sixth Avenue and 50th Street to Fifth Avenue and 52nd Street, a distance of four blocks.
In light of the abundance of possible renters, John Rockefeller Jr. Rockefeller Center eventually became the family's "single largest repository" of wealth.
Rockefeller Center Inc. Esso now Exxon was one of the tenants who wanted to expand, and the company signaled that it would build its own office tower if Rockefeller Center's managers did not construct a building for them.
Some tenants, such as the Sinclair Oil Corporation , indicated that they wanted to leave the complex after their leases expired in — because the original complex's buildings did not have air conditioning , while newer office buildings did.
As Columbia University still owned the land underneath the complex, they were tasked with installing air conditioning in the buildings.
The new building would add emphasis to any north-south views of the center, since the existing complex's building only formed west-east axes.
By , Columbia had acquiesced to reimbursing Rockefeller Center, Inc. In , in the face of a shrinking congregation, the St. Nicholas Church leased the church building to the Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Company , who then leased three contiguous plots from Rockefeller Center for a proposed story building.
This allowed Columbia to install air conditioning, passing the costs on to the remaining tenants in return for lease extensions. Rubber Company indicated that it wanted to expand its office building into the space that was taken up by the underused theater.
Time-Life also wanted to expand, as its existing space in 1 Rockefeller Plaza was also becoming insufficient.
Originally, the venture wanted to construct a hotel to the west of 75 Rockefeller Center, but ultimately, a glass-and-concrete story office building was built on the site.
Unlike in the rest of the complex, where different components were renovated one at a time to avoid disturbing tenants, the two structures were renovated all at once because their space was largely vacant.
Through the s, the Music Hall was successful regardless of the status of the city's economic, business, or entertainment sectors as a whole.
However, by the early s, the proliferation of closed-captioned foreign movies had reduced attendance at the Music Hall. The first round of staff and performer firings began in A New York Times report in stated that Rockefeller Center had been popular among tenants from its inception, being almost fully rented for much of the first half-century of its existence.
However, Rockefeller Center was not popular as an entertainment complex, having been used for mainly commercial purposes through its history.
Columbia University was not making enough money from Rockefeller Center leases by the s, since a series of negotiations with Rockefeller Center Inc.
The university's funds had dwindled so much that by , their expenses were paid for by their endowment fund.
Mitsubishi Estate , a real estate company of the Mitsubishi Group , purchased the Rockefeller Group in The Rainbow Room closed in  in preparation for an extensive renovation that started in They re-settled in less expensive offices on 49th Street, near their old headquarters.
The current complex is a combination of two building complexes and a standalone building: the original 14 Art Deco office buildings from the s, one building across 51st Street built in , and a set of four International-style towers built along the west side of Avenue of the Americas during the s and s.
These six blocks are the size of three standard blocks. The east side of Sixth Avenue, officially known as Avenue of the Americas,  contains most of the buildings that were built specifically for the proposed radio complex.
The western half of the southernmost block of the complex along Sixth Avenue, between 48th and 49th streets, contains the former U. It is aligned with the axis of 10 Rockefeller Plaza on the eastern side of the block,  and its northern and southern elevations contain five setbacks.
Due to its duplication of the larger Radio City Music Hall's activities, it was deemed uneconomical almost from its opening,  and was considered redundant by the s.
The block immediately to the north, on Sixth Avenue between 49th and 50th streets, is occupied by 30 Rockefeller Plaza and its western annex at Sixth Avenue.
Radio City Music Hall at Avenue of the Americas, occupying the southwestern portion of the block between 50th and 51st streets. The other building on the block between 50th and 51st streets is Avenue of the Americas,  a story structure with a setback on the sixth floor.
The International Complex is located entirely along Fifth Avenue, with the tall International Building overshadowing four smaller country-themed buildings with retail outlets.
The current international theme was decided on due to a lack of American tenants willing to rent there; eventually, the buildings were occupied by British, French, and Italian interests,   although the Italian interests ultimately were the only foreign tenants who rented for the long term.
All four retail buildings have identical limestone facades, roof gardens, and ground-floor storefronts, but differ in the artworks with which they were decorated.
Patrick's Cathedral. When viewed from Fifth Avenue, the buildings provide a foreground for the taller 30 Rockefeller Plaza building behind them. The southernmost of the four retail buildings is La Maison Francaise literally "the French House" at Fifth Avenue,  which opened in October Louis in The building contains a main lobby at 48th Street, a service entrance to the same street, and a connection to 1 Rockefeller Plaza at its west end.
The buildings subsequently added are separately owned by multiple owners. The first subsequent building to be built was 75 Rockefeller Plaza , at 51st Street on the north end of the complex, was built in The other four buildings were built as part of a single project on the west side of Sixth Avenue between 47th and 51st streets.
At the front of 30 Rock is the Lower Plaza, located in the very center of the complex and below ground level.
Although the opera house was canceled in , the plaza was retained in subsequent plans. The pools are topped with fountain heads designed by Rene Chambellan , each representing a different attribute: leadership, will, thought, imagination, energy, and alertness.
The twelve sculptures, each measuring 8 feet 2. Rockefeller Jr see below. From there, a flight of the steps descends toward the rink, then splits into two different stairs heading both north and south.
Much of the plaza's outdoor section is occupied by an ice rink. Installed in , it replaced unprofitable retail space that had been constructed as part of the original center.
The northern, southern, and eastern sides of the plaza are surrounded by a walkway that is several steps below street level, with staircases at either western end as well as at the plaza's Channel Gardens entrance.
Some flagpoles surround the plaza's perimeter at ground level, installed at regular intervals along the walkway and Rockefeller Plaza.
In July , two years after John Rockefeller Jr. The creed was first expressed in Rockefeller's beliefs include "the supreme worth of the individual and in his right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness" the first principle and "truth and justice are fundamental to an enduring social order" the sixth principle.
The architect I. Pei praised Rockefeller Center's lower plaza as being "perhaps the most successful open space in the United States, perhaps in the world", due to its success in drawing visitors.
Rockefeller Plaza is a pedestrian street running through the complex, parallel to Fifth and Sixth avenues. This street was also part of the original plans for the Metropolitan Opera,   and Benjamin Morris originally intended for the road to stretch from 42nd to 59th streets.
As with most numbered crosstown streets in Manhattan, Rockefeller Plaza is 30 feet 9. However, the sidewalks are much wider than on typical streets.
Until the s, the plaza contained plaques that affirmed Columbia University's ownership of Rockefeller Center, but these were removed with the sale of the complex to the Rockefeller Group.
The largest and most grand of the gardens was the 0. Each of the nation-themed gardens were separated by barriers. However, all of the nation-themed gardens were eventually removed, and the rock garden was left to dry up, supplanted by flower beds that were no longer open to the public.
The International complex's gardens fared better. The British and French gardens both contain a lawn and pool surrounded by hedges, while the other two gardens atop the International Building's wings include ivy lawns surrounded by hedges.
The Italian garden also contained a cobblestone walkway and two plaques from the Roman Forum , while International Building North's garden has a paved walkway with steps.
A series of shop- and restaurant-filled pedestrian passages stretch underground from 47th to 51st streets between Fifth and Seventh avenues. The pedestrian tunnel system was part of the updated plan for the center,  and formal proposals for the system were submitted in It was supposed to comprise a system that stretched over 0.
Ultimately, the people mover was not built, but the space mall opened in May The concourse is the uppermost level of the complex's four basement levels, as well as the only basement level open to the public.
Two small buildings abut the north and south corners of the 30 Rockefeller Plaza annex. The grocer John F. However, Rockefeller's assistant Charles O.
Heydt mistakenly said that Maxwell would never sell, and Maxwell himself said that he had never been approached by the Rockefellers.
Consequently, Rockefeller Center did not purchase Maxwell's property until They initially gained a lease extension until , but ended up leasing their property until , and was built around Maxwell's and Hurley and Daly's properties.
On the southeast corner of the complex, on Fifth Avenue between 48th and 49th streets, there were also two pre-existing buildings.
Robert Walton Goelet owned a lot at 2—6 West 49th Street and wished to develop it;  the lot was developed as Fifth Avenue , which was completed in In November , John Todd suggested the creation of a program for placing distinctive artworks within each of the buildings.
As part of the proposal, the complex would have a variety of sculptures, statues, murals, friezes, decorative fountains, and mosaics.
At first, Alexander suggested "Homo Fabor, Man the Builder" as the complex's overarching theme, representing satisfaction with one's occupation rather than with the wage.
The art that currently exists within Rockefeller Center was inspired by Professor Alexander's arts program.
Commissioned in and executed by Lee Lawrie and Rene Chambellan, the Atlas statue is located in the International Building's courtyard. It faces eastward toward St.
Patrick's Cathedral on Fifth Avenue. The statue depicts Atlas the titan, with exaggerated muscles, supporting the celestial vault on his shoulders.
Paul Manship's highly recognizable bronze gilded Prometheus statue, commissioned in , is located at the western end of the sunken plaza.
The statue is flanked by two smaller gilded representations of Youth and Maiden, which were relocated to Palazzo d'Italia from to because Manship thought the representations did not fit visually.
Rockefeller, Jr. This came after Nelson had been unable to secure the commissioning of either Matisse or Picasso. As expected, his Man at the Crossroads became controversial, as it contained Moscow May Day scenes and a clear portrait of Lenin , which had not been apparent in initial sketches.
In its earliest years, Rockefeller Center received largely negative and pessimistic reviews from architectural critics.
The most cynical opinion came from architectural scholar Lewis Mumford , who so hated the "weakly conceived, reckless, romantic chaos" of the March plans for Rockefeller Center that he reportedly went into exile in upstate New York.
Mumford's view of the complex was only marginally less negative when he revisited the issue in December he said that it could be "large, exciting, [and] romantic" at night, but that "a mountain or ash heap of the same size would do the trick almost as well, if the lights were cleverly arranged".
He called the plan for Rockefeller Center "an apotheosis of megalomania, a defiant egotism" arising from an ostentatious display of wealth, and said that "the sooner we accomplish the destiny it so perfectly foreshadows, the sooner we shall be able to clear the ground and begin again".
The urban planner Le Corbusier had a more optimistic view of the complex, expressing that Rockefeller Center was "rational, logically conceived, biologically normal, [and] harmonious".
By the s, most critics had positive views of Rockefeller Center. It is as natural a home for a 's street festival as for a 's movie about cafe society: few designs can join such disparate worlds so comfortably.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Skyscraper complex in Manhattan, New York. United States historic place. Rockefeller Center.
National Register of Historic Places. National Historic Landmark. NYC Landmark. View from the northeast of 30 Rockefeller Plaza at the heart of the complex.
For more details on construction, see Construction of Rockefeller Center. The flagpoles surrounding the Lower Plaza, seen on a Memorial Day weekend.
Main article: Man at the Crossroads. Architecture portal New York City portal. National Historic Landmark summary listing.
National Park Service. September 18, January 23, Retrieved September 1, The New York Times. December 28, Retrieved November 10, December 6, October 5, Retrieved November 16, February 15, Project; A huge theatrical venture which will exploit television, music radio, talking pictures and plays will be erected, it was disclosed last night, on the site assembled by John D.
June 14, Retrieved November 15, Radio City" PDF. June 17, March 6, Retrieved November 11, October 4, The New York Sun.
August 24, Retrieved November 16, — via Fultonhistory. March 19, December 21, Retrieved November 10, — via Fultonhistory. August 21, July 26, Retrieved November 11, — via Fultonhistory.
December 24, Tarrytown Daily News. September 19, Daily Argus. Mount Vernon, New York. Retrieved November 12, January 16, March 31, Retrieved November 27, December 19, January 10, July 27, May 9, Retrieved November 21, June 26, New York Sun.
June 1, May 4, The Rockefellers. American Experience. Retrieved December 19, December 10, Retrieved November 14, December 22, Retrieved December 4, May 2, Retrieved November 7, November 28, May 11, Retrieved November 20, Retrieved November 22, December 2, June 13, April 7, May 3, November 2, October 16, August 4, February 5, Retrieved November 23, March 13, Nicholas Fight" PDF.
April 1, October 22, October 9, Land to Holdings" PDF. August 10, December 14, The A n angu are directly descended from these ancestors.
Modern science shows that they have lived around Uluru for more than 40, years. They continued to live their traditional life until the s.
They have a complex ceremonial life based around Uluru. See geography of Uluru and Kata Tjuta. From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Uluru Ayers Rock Northern Territory , Australia. Uluru and Kata Tjuta National Park. Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. OctoberSie steckte ihre Bluse in den Rock und setzte ihren roten Hut auf. Crystal rock Ein Muss fuer jeden Mauritius Besucher! Das Sortiment besteht dabei aus den aktuellen Kollektionen und beinhaltet neben modischen Röcken und Hosen auch moderne Jacken, Blazer und Kleider sowie stilvolle Blusen und Shirts. Japanisch Bl Prognose. The Little Rock Nine was a group of African-American students who were in the Little Rock Central High School, Arkansas in , following the Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education II. This started the Little Rock Crisis, in which the students were stopped from entering the racially segregated school by Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus. In , the King of Munster, Muirchertach Ua Briain, donated his fortress on the Rock to the Church. The picturesque complex has a character of its own and is one of the most remarkable collections of Celtic art and medieval architecture to be found anywhere in Europe. . Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'kurzer rock' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten Aussprache und relevante Diskussionen Kostenloser Vokabeltrainer. Queen are a British rock band that formed in London in They are one of the most commercially successful music acts of all time, selling over million records worldwide. They are one of the most commercially successful music acts of all time, selling over million records worldwide. The heavy currents, and a small waterfall in the area (still visible in the early 19th century) created a murmuring sound, and this combined with the special echo the rock produces to act as a sort of amplifier, giving the rock its name.